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β-1,3-葡聚糖对低盐度凡纳滨对虾血液代谢物和免疫的影响

赵红霞 胡俊茹 黄燕华 陈冰 曹俊明

赵红霞, 胡俊茹, 黄燕华, 陈冰, 曹俊明. β-1,3-葡聚糖对低盐度凡纳滨对虾血液代谢物和免疫的影响[J]. 南方水产科学, 2020, 16(5): 87-98. doi: 10.12131/20200046
引用本文: 赵红霞, 胡俊茹, 黄燕华, 陈冰, 曹俊明. β-1,3-葡聚糖对低盐度凡纳滨对虾血液代谢物和免疫的影响[J]. 南方水产科学, 2020, 16(5): 87-98. doi: 10.12131/20200046
Hongxia ZHAO, Junru HU, Hanhua HUANG, Bing CHEN, Junming CAO. Effect of dietary β-glucan on blood metabolites and immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinities[J]. South China Fisheries Science, 2020, 16(5): 87-98. doi: 10.12131/20200046
Citation: Hongxia ZHAO, Junru HU, Hanhua HUANG, Bing CHEN, Junming CAO. Effect of dietary β-glucan on blood metabolites and immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinities[J]. South China Fisheries Science, 2020, 16(5): 87-98. doi: 10.12131/20200046

β-1,3-葡聚糖对低盐度凡纳滨对虾血液代谢物和免疫的影响

doi: 10.12131/20200046
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目 (31402307);广东省现代农业产业技术体系建设项目 (2018LM083;2019KJ115);科技创新战略专项资金 (高水平农科院建设) (201614TD)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵红霞(1976—),女,博士,研究员,从事水产动物营养与饲料研究。E-mail: zhaohongxia8866@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S 963.3

Effect of dietary β-glucan on blood metabolites and immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinities

  • 摘要: 为研究长期投喂β-1,3-葡聚糖对低盐度 (5) 养殖凡纳滨对虾 (Litopenaeus vannamei) 血液代谢物和肌肉免疫相关酶活性的影响,以初始体质量为 (0.65±0.01) g的凡纳滨对虾为研究对象,分别投喂添加0、250、500和1 000 mg·kg−1 β-1,3-葡聚糖的4种等氮等脂试验饲料,试验期84 d。结果显示,凡纳滨对虾血清乳酸盐和肌肉溶菌酶活性最高值出现在摄食后的第14天,总蛋白、甘油三酯、胆固醇、葡萄糖含量最高值出现在第42天,超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、抗超氧阴离子水平的最高值出现在第56天。与对照组相比,饲料中添加250 mg·kg−1 β-1,3-葡聚糖显著提高了凡纳滨对虾血清甘油三酯、胆固醇、葡萄糖、乳酸盐含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性 (P<0.05);500 mg·kg−1 β-1,3-葡聚糖显著提高了其血清总蛋白、抗超氧阴离子水平 (P<0.05),250或500 mg·kg−1 β-1,3-葡聚糖可显著增强过氧化氢酶、溶菌酶活性 (P<0.05)。饲料中添加250或500 mg·kg−1 β-1,3-葡聚糖14、42或56 d,可显著提高低盐度养殖凡纳滨对虾营养物质代谢和非特异性免疫功能。
  • 表  1  基础饲料组成及营养水平 (风干质量)

    Table  1.   Composition and nutrient levels of the basal diet (dry matter) %

    原料
    Ingredient
    质量分数
    Mass fraction
    原料
    Ingredient
    质量分数
    Mass fraction
    鱼粉 Fish meal 30.0 α-纤维素 α-cellulose 0.5
    大豆浓缩蛋白 Soy protein concentrate 30.0 大豆卵磷脂 Soybean lecithin (50%) 1.5
    玉米淀粉 Corn starch 28.0
    鱼油 Fish oil 5.0 营养水平 Nutrient level
    氯化胆碱 Choline chloride (50%) 1.0  粗蛋白质 Crude Protein 39.1
    维生素预混料 Vitamin premix 2.0  粗脂肪 Crude lipid 11.2
    矿物质预混料 Mineral premix 0.5  灰分 Ash 13.8
    磷酸二氢钙 Ca(H2PO4)2 1.5  水分 Moisture 8.7
    注:1. 维生素预混料为每千克饲料提供:维生素A 60.0 mg;维生素D 5 000 IU;维生素E 99.0 mg;维生素K 5.0 mg;维生素B1 50.0 mg;维生素B2 40.0 mg;维生素B6 100.0 mg;维生素B12 0.1 mg;泛酸钙 calcium pantothenate 120.0 mg;烟酸 niacin 200.0 mg;生物素 biotin 1.0 mg;肌醇 inositol 300. 0 mg;叶酸 folic acid 10.0 mg;2. 矿物质预混料为每千克饲料提供:铁 12 mg;铜 25 mg;锌 32 mg;锰 20 mg;硒 0.05 mg;碘 0.1 mg;钴5 mg;镁 0.06 mg;钾 40 mg Note: 1. Vitamin premix composition (mg·kg−1 feed): VA 60.0 mg; VD 5 000 IU; VE 99.0 mg; VK 5.0 mg; VB 1 50.0 mg; VB 2 40.0 mg; V B 6 100.0 mg; VB 12 0.1 mg; calcium pantothenate 120.0 mg; niacin 200.0 mg; biotin 1.0 mg; inositol 300. 0 mg; folic acid 10.0 mg; wheat flour was used as the carrier; 2. Mineral premix composition (mg·kg−1 feed): Fe 12 mg; Cu 25 mg; Zn 32 mg; Mn 20 mg; Se 0. 05 mg; I 0.1 mg; Co 5 mg; Mg 0.06 mg; K 40 mg
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾血清总蛋白质量浓度的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on TP mass concentration in serum of L. vannamei mg·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 65.81±1.73A 65.81±1.73A 65.81±1.73A 65.81±1.73A
    14 66.35±1.45aA 71.83±2.73abA 80.50±5.30bAB 66.3±3.12aAB
    28 70.90±3.25abA 73.56±4.55abA 77.06±2.51bA 63.83±1.64aA
    42 70.67±3.85aA 77.47±4.58abAB 93.05±1.85bB 69.50±1.50aAB
    56 77.06±1.56AB 76.56±3.75AB 75.40±4.35A 73.90±2.26B
    70 77.96±5.74AB 71.10±6.25A 80.93±3.39AB 73.30±4.23B
    84 85.13±4.94B 88.33±1.73B 79.53±5.17AB 85.07±3.00C
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.002
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.042
    注:数据上标小写字母表示同一时间不同组间的显著性差异;大写字母表示同一组不同时间的显著性差异 (P<0.05),下表同此 Note: The lowercase letters represent significant differences between groups at the same time; capital letters on the data represent significant differences in different periods of the same group (P<0.05). The same case in the following tables.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾血清胆固醇浓度的影响

    Table  3.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on cholesterol concentration in serum of L. vannamei mmol·L−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 1.15±0.08B 1.15±0.08BC 1.15±0.08C 1.15±0.08B
    14 1.09±0.18B 0.99±0.03AB 1.02±0.15C 1.02±0.04B
    28 0.57±0.01A 0.72±0.09A 0.58±0.02A 0.60±0.02A
    42 0.78±0.07aA 1.36±0.17bC 0.88±0.04aBC 0.98±0.06aB
    56 0.68±0.04aA 1.29±0.12bBC 0.70±0.07aAB 0.98±0.15abB
    70 0.67±0.01aA 0.82±0.03cA 0.80±0.04bcABC 0.77±0.05abcAB
    84 0.74±0.02aA 0.97±0.09bAB 0.66±0.02aAB 0.81±0.03abAB
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan <0.001
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.007
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾血清甘油三酯浓度的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on triglycerides concentration in serum of L. vannamei mmol·L−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 1.32±0.09B 1.32±0.09B 1.32±0.09C 1.32±0.09C
    14 0.97±0.12AB 1.07±0.08B 1.16±0.21C 0.77±0.13BC
    28 0.24±0.02A 0.41±0.05A 0.36±0.03A 0.33±0.01A
    42 0.65±0.11aAB 1.74±0.14cC 0.96±0.05abBC 1.06±0.13bC
    56 0.50±0.09aA 1.86±0.39bC 0.67±0.15aAB 1.11±0.10aC
    70 0.38±0.01aA 0.65±0.05cAB 0.52±0.03abcA 0.56±0.08bcAB
    84 0.45±0.02aA 0.69±0.15bC 0.35±0.03aA 0.52±0.02abAB
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan <0.001
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days <0.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾血清葡萄糖浓度的影响

    Table  5.   Effect of dietary β-1,3–glucan on glucose concentration in serum of L. vannamei mmol·L−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 4.29±0.32C 4.29±0.32BC 4.29±0.32C 4.29±0.32B
    14 3.73±0.81BC 4.13±0.17BC 3.16±0.72ABC 2.80±0.66A
    28 1.63±0.14A 3.03±0.41AB 2.36±0.68ABC 2.33±0.37A
    42 3.60±0.45aBC 5.23±0.54bC 3.96±1.2aC 4.66±0.26abB
    56 3.26±0.61ABC 4.46±1.09BC 3.03±0.67ABC 3.00±0.68A
    70 1.80±0.30AB 2.00±0.36A 2.05±0.35A 2.76±0.55A
    84 3.53±0.71BC 2.30±0.06AB 2.06±0.34A 2.86±0.27A
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.201
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.611
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾血清乳酸盐浓度的影响

    Table  6.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on lactate concentration in serum of L. vannamei mmol·L−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 918.24±120.51B 918.24±120.51B 918.24±120.51B 918.24±120.51B
    14 137.00±4.01aA 916.50±58.50bB 386.00±68.07aA 355.67±9.93aA
    28 72.00±2.30aA 326.66±39.67cA 215.00±13.00bcA 351.00±65.51cA
    42 208.00±85.55A 331.00±73.01A 152.33±61.57A 326.33±56.17A
    56 188.00±13.00A 349.66±119.38A 169.50±19.50A 368.66±114.39A
    70 49.66±12.86aA 69.33±1.85abA 48.00±11.59aA 100.67±23.81bA
    84 116.50±53.50abA 46.67±10.83aA 70.33±22.60aA 167.50±57.50bA
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan <0.001
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.205
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾肌肉超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Table  7.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on SOD activity in muscle of L. vannamei U·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 3.19±0.14A 3.19±0.14A 3.19±0.14A 3.19±0.14A
    14 4.24±0.91A 3.37±0.23A 4.18±0.67A 3.35±0.33A
    28 6.29±0.57B 6.71±0.84B 5.05±1.13AB 6.17±0.23B
    42 6.29±0.23B 6.29±0.48B 6.21±0.41ABC 5.61±0.14B
    56 7.68±0.16aB 9.75±0.12bC 9.32±0.81abC 9.37±0.33abC
    70 7.69±0.49B 8.89±1.09BC 7.54±0.83BC 9.05±0.34C
    84 6.28±0.74B 6.57±1.33B 7.13±1.54ABC 6.54±1.61B
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.711
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.797
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾肌肉过氧化氢酶活性的影响

    Table  8.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on CAT activity in muscle of L. vannamei U·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 2.68±0.79A 2.68±0.79A 2.68±0.79A 2.68±0.79A
    14 1.34±0.49aA 6.41±0.72bBC 3.19±1.10aA 3.05±0.54aAB
    28 2.97±0.25aA 4.74±0.91bB 2.87±0.35aA 2.25±0.17aA
    42 2.02±1.37A 1.32±0.55A 1.24±0.11A 4.37±2.04AB
    56 8.76±1.59aB 7.56±0.79aC 14.29±0.28bB 5.88±2.05aC
    70 2.61±0.49A 1.96±0.18A 1.92±1.34A 2.30±0.83A
    84 0.79±0.51aA 1.85±0.03abA 2.03±1.02abA 2.23±0.59abA
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.253
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾肌肉溶菌酶活性的影响

    Table  9.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on lysozyme activity in muscle of L. vannamei U·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 9.45±0.31B 9.45±0.31A 9.45±0.31A 9.45±0.31B
    14 13.03±0.26aB 26.99±0.93bC 27.92±1.59bB 13.16±1.46aB
    28 1.32±0.55aA 8.24±0.26bA 6.47±2.39abA 4.69±1.98abA
    42 1.87±0.41aA 9.12±1.32cA 7.96±2.17bcA 3.40±1.65abA
    56 2.22±0.63aA 15.13±0.21bB 11.53±3.29bA 2.32±0.42aA
    70 0.89±0.38aA 8.39±2.79bA 8.74±2.82bA 2.44±1.41abA
    84 1.90±0.43aA 11.81±1.09bAB 13.13±0.24bA 1.98±0.14aA
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan <0.001
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days <0.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾肌肉抗超氧阴离子活性的影响

    Table  10.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on level of anti-O2 in muscle of L. vannamei U·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 7.92±0.83A 7.92±0.83A 7.92±0.83A 7.92±0.83A
    14 8.27±0.54aA 10.75±0.12abA 14.32±0.61bcB 11.75±1.59abcAB
    28 13.04±0.43AB 14.01±1.44B 12.82±0.79AB 13.84±0.95B
    42 14.79±0.77B 16.47±0.65B 14.44±0.99B 12.93±0.46AB
    56 15.18±0.40aB 18.41±0.83abC 21.15±1.65bC 17.34±0.90abC
    70 12.96±0.33AB 13.41±0.51B 13.02±1.09AB 12.71±1.01AB
    84 11.02±0.85aAB 10.16±0.57aA 10.44±1.02aA 10.01±0.91aA
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3–葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.019
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.022
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  β-1,3-葡聚糖对凡纳滨对虾肌肉总抗氧化能力的影响

    Table  11.   Effect of dietary β-1,3-glucan on level of T-AOC in muscle of L. vannamei U·mL−1

    天数
    Day
    β-1,3-葡聚糖水平 β-1,3-glucan level
    0 250 mg·kg−1 500 mg·kg−1 1 000 mg·kg−1
    0 0.32±0.02 0.32±0.02A 0.32±0.02AB 0.32±0.02A
    14 0.32±0.11 0.41±0.02A 0.40±0.04AB 0.30±0.05A
    28 0.38±0.04 0.51±0.05AB 0.40±0.09AB 0.44±0.08AB
    42 0.39±0.07 0.44±0.08A 0.26±0.03A 0.31±0.02A
    56 0.41±0.08 0.42±0.11A 0.44±0.06AB 0.53±0.02B
    70 0.39±0.11 0.33±0.06A 0.51±0.08B 0.44±0.09AB
    84 0.49±0.02 0.64±0.05B 0.51±0.03B 0.41±0.04AB
    双因素方差分析PP-value of Two-way ANOVA
    β-1,3-葡聚糖 β-1,3-glucan 0.406
    试验天数 Experimental days <0.001
    β-1,3-葡聚糖×试验天数 β-1,3-glucan×Experimental days 0.400
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-03-17
  • 修回日期:  2020-04-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-10-09
  • 刊出日期:  2020-10-09

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